On the National Semiconductor website, they explained their process of utilizing 8D, which is also known as the “Eight Disciplines,” for problem solving and process improvement. They believe the 8 disciplines are structured so as to rely on team collaboration:
The team as a whole is better and smarter than the quality sum of the individuals. Each discipline is supported by a checklist of assessment questions, such as “what is wrong with what,” “what, when, where, how much.”
This reliance on teamwork helps to reduce or eliminate ego-related subjectivism, to combine skillsets, and relies on leadership to drive the team toward its goal. The idea is for the whole group to join forces to solve the problem. This has a residual effect of making them a cohesive team to tackle subsequent problems in the organization.
According to Wikipedia, 8D includes the following:
- D0: Plan: Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites.
- D1: Use a Team: Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge.
- D2: Define and describe the Problem: Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.
- D3: Develop Interim Containment Plan; Implement and verify Interim Actions: Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer.
- D4: Determine, Identify, and Verify Root Causes and Escape Points: Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem has occurred. Also identify why the problem has not been noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be verified or proved, not determined by fuzzy brainstorming. One can use five whys or Ishikawa diagrams to map causes against the effect or problem identified.
- D5: Choose and Verify Permanent Corrections (PCs) for Problem/Non Conformity: Through pre-production programs quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve the problem for the customer.
- D6: Implement and Validate Corrective Actions: Define and Implement the best corrective actions.
- D7: Take Preventive Measures: Modify the management systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.
- D8: Congratulate Your Team: Recognize the collective efforts of the team. The team needs to be formally thanked by the organization.